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Bodystat Knowledgebase and FAQs

Knowledgebase / FAQs

Bodystat News


Bodystat Research Articles

Research Articles

Bodystat Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials:

We are proud to introduce the Bodystat clinical trials products, specifically designed for our Pharmaceutical drug trial customers and being used by top companies as:

  • Abbott Laboratories
  • Nutricia
  • GlaxoSmithkline

Pharmaceutical companies have successfully used our body composition and fluid monitoring systems in a wide range of trials ranging from COPD to Cancer to Obesity , all around the world since 1993.

The details of these Secrecy Agreements are of course confidential. However, the Bodystat team has a minimum of 65 years collective experience in the understanding and application of BIA technology and have a wealth of knowledge to share with our Pharmaceutical partners.

We can provide the training of your Clinical Research Associates (CRAs) and Investigators during your CRA/Investigators' Meeting wherever they take place in the world. We are generally expected to make Power Point presentations at such meetings to explain our technology.

Our Bodystat devices (both hardware and software and User Guides) are available in most European foreign languages for the benefit of the study teams.

Significant Features

  • A major feature of our software programs is that the input and measured subject data as displayed on the hardware device may be downloaded into a Bodystat software program (via Bluetooth technology) WITHOUT having to re-enter any data.
  • This not only saves time but also ensures the accuracy of data collection.
  • Furthermore, it is not possible to alter the data once downloaded into the software.
  • This ensures total data integrity when it comes to your subsequent audit procedures.
  • All downloaded test data with appropriate headings can be automatically saved direct into an xlsx, csv or xml file formats at the click of a button; another time-saving feature.
  • Individual reports can also be exported in a variety of different formats for further analysis. Formats include pdf, html, mht, rtf, xls, xlsx, csv, text, image and xps files.
  • Test data can also be downloaded, without the use of a PC, direct into a Bodystat Thermal portable printer for instant print-out and permanent record keeping.

We offer a choice of rental or purchase options on all our devices.

Whatever your requirements, remember we have the years of experience – we've done it before.

Knowledgebase / FAQs

General Questions

Percent body fat is known to be a key factor in determining health and fitness. Nutritional status as derived by fat percentage is also a known indicator of disease risk. Measuring weight alone is not a reliable indicator of good health as this does not take in to account individuals different body compositions. I.E. if you have a weight lifter they weight could be the same as a couch potato, their body compositions will be completely different although their weights may be the same. Weight does not distinguish between weight that come from body fat and weight that come from lean body mass or fluid.

Carrying too much fat is what makes a person obese, not the weight shown on the scale. Obesity is a known risk for many serious medical conditions including heart disease, diabetes and even certain forms of cancer. Obesity contributes to at least half the chronic diseases in western society. However, it is not weight that needs to be reduced, rather the amount of body fat a person has.

Electrodes are only for single use items. During use, the electrode gel picks up skin oils, debris and hair which reduce the efficacy of the electrode. This will affect the measurements obtained. Re-use of electrodes is also unhygienic. Therefore other brands may not give an accurate result.

Yes! But only if you are using dual or multi-frequency devices which require a larger surface area to conduct the current and to get the most accurate reading. All the devices are calibrated for the particular Bodystat device that is used. Therefore other brands may not give an accurate result.

Yes, with Bodystat you can analyse cellular health with multi frequency devices, ie. QuadScan 4000. You can not measure the lean or fat mass accurately in BIA devices as the circumference of the area would need to be known.

For further information, please email:

In day to day clinical application, implants do not have a significant impact on the measurements obtained by BIA. The key to obtaining useful information from BIA devices is to take a bench mark measurement and to track change over a period of time. In research situations, this may alter readings from recognise Gold Standards, such as Under Water Weighing (UWW) and Air Displacement Plethysmography. However, we have no research to ascertain the significance of this deviation.

This has yet to be researched fully, but it is generally thought that implants do effect the results. Although you would still be able to track the change in the results of your client.

In order to ensure that the results are accurate when they are repeated it is important to make sure that the electrodes are placed in exactly the same place as they were for the previous test. Two electrodes are placed on the foot and the hand as illustrated below. In order to obtain accurate data you must follow the instructions on test protocol. How closely you adhere to this test dictates how accurate the test will be. Information concerning test procedures can also be found in the attached document.

Bodystat 1500 Electrode Placement

Bodystat 1500 Electrode PlacementBodystat 1500 Electrode Placement

1500MDD & QuadScan Electrode Placement

1500MDD & QuadScan Electrode Placement1500MDD & QuadScan Electrode Placement

The data gathered may be either printed out and given to the client or may be entered in to the computer software. This software then enables you to build a profile of your client, which is a great way of helping to motivate them towards their goals and to see if intervention is working effectively.

As with weighing yourself, it is best to be consistent and measure around the same time of day, each time you carry out a test. Information concerning test procedures can also be found in the attached document.

All Bodystat devices are automatically programmed between the ages of 18 to 70 years. Alternative equations are available for children, athletes and geriatrics. Alternative age equations can be accessed via the software.

As with all BIA devices we recommend that you do not use on Patients who have an implanted cardiac device such as a pacemaker or who are in the early stages of pregnancy.

These are available directly from

Alternatively refer to our promotional section for further information.

The organisation that you purchased the device from should be able to assist you. Additionally, there is also a series of training videos available on the website. If you are unsure, then please contact

These are not essential for the results, rather an additional extra. If you do not wish to have these measurements on your machine, you may remove these by selecting ‘omit’ in the installation mode.

Bear in mind that the devices are used by Olympic athletes and set accordingly! The activity level does not affect the actual body composition results but is only used to calculate the EAR (Estimated Average Requirement for Calories). The Basal Metabolic weight is calculated on the LEAN weight and the height of the individual.

YES, we suggest the right side only because the heart is on the left side. NOTE: If the left side is selected, they must always use the left side for that patient – this is because impedance values will be slightly higher compared to the right side, due to the fact that the current has to penetrate the another organ, the heart, increasing the resistance.

Measurements are best performed with patient in a relaxed, supine position. The patient may also sit during measurement, but feet should be raised, limbs should be straight and not touching in order to achieve an equal distribution of fluids.

Ensure patient is relaxed in the supine position, ensure skin is clean and good electrode contact has been achieved. Check correct electrode placement and check correct connection of patient lead. Try to minimize sources of electrical disturbances (power sources, mobile phones etc.) Ensure legs are apart and arms are not in contact with the trunk. Information concerning test procedures can be found in the attached document: Bodystat Test Procedure.

The weight that you enter on the device is critical. If this is inaccurate then the results you will achieve will be inaccurate.

We would recommend that the first test is done at the beginning of the treatment or programme and then this is followed up by test at regular periods. In the case of fitness this would be 4-6 weeks and in the case of medical applications, such as lymphodema, this would be on the patients regular check up visits.

Simply go in to the set up screen and add in your new personal trainers details. When you go to log your results from your new session simply select the trainer that you want to use.

This is likely to be because the App needs to be registered through your personal trainers device. At your next appointment ask your personal trainer to register their Bodystat device using the serial number in the set up screen. The serial number can be found by pressing and holding the down arrow key whilst switching the device on at the same time.

Yes – simply go to the Set up screen and select your preference.

Testing Questions

No, the current passed through the body is so small, it is impossible to feel!

It can, very good contact between the skin and electrodes must be made. If the person’s skin is oily, then wipe with an alcohol swab before positioning the electrodes.

Certain Steroid based medication will affect the test results.

No, as long as it is located in one spot (i.e., bracelet, necklace), and does not interfere with electrode placement.

The test for a 1500 unit is complete in 3 seconds.

Science Questions

Bio-electrical Impedance technology works by running a small current through the body, measuring the resistance and reactance to the flow of the current. This data is then processed in the device along with the height, weight, gender and age of the subject.

The calories are calculated depending on the gender, age, weight, height and exercise level entered in to the device. Unlike other calculations, we use the lean weight, which is the metabolically active tissue; therefore, we feel that this provides greater accuracy.

The Basal Metabolic Rate is the number of calories required in a day when at rest and the Estimated Average Requirement is the number of calories required when active.

Impedance defines the opposition to an alternating electrical current. Impedance is comprised of both resistance and reactance. By analyzing the resistance and reactance of human tissue certain properties of the tissue can be obtained. The resistance of the tissues to the electrical current determines the opposition of the tissue to the flow of electrons (dissipative loss). It is related to the amount of water present in tissues. The reactance by contrast reflects the capacitive losses caused by cell membranes.

Device Questions

You need to check the calibration. This can be done by attaching the leadwires to the metal prongs on the blue plastic calibration block. Switch the device on and run a test as normal. Within the results the impedance in ohms, should read between 496 and 503.

This depends of the frequency of use. If the device is being used on a daily basis then we would recommend once a week.

App Questions

This is likely to be because the App needs to be registered through your personal trainers device. At your next appointment ask your personal trainer to register their Bodystat device using the serial number in the set up screen. The serial number can be found by pressing and holding the down arrow key whilst switching the device on at the same time.

As yet the App is only available for iphone devices. Future developments for Android technology are anticipated.


10 Rules for Gym Etiquette!

2013-09-18 14:00:00

By: Huffington Post

If you've started the gym in 2014, this may be some help.

Congratulations! You've make it into the second week of the new year! Have you jumped back onto the workout wagon or joined a gym for the first time? Good, because it's time for my second annual installment of "Rules of Gym Etiquette" to educate new comers and re-educate the self entitled gym and fitness studio goers.

Huffington Post

10 Rules for Gym Etiquette!

Exercise at Work!

2013-09-17 14:00:00


So most new years resolutions are well under way. Is yours to get fit? Reduce body fat? Drop a dress size? You might go to the gym 3 times a week, but do you sit around all day in an office? How about changing that... rumour is "Sitting is the new smoking"

Exercise at Work!

Quality vs Quantity?

2013-09-18 14:00:00

By: Huffington Post

We all have goals that are important to us. But is it our drive to achieve a certain outcome that makes us better? Or something else entirely?

Huffington Post

Quality vs Quantity?


2013-09-17 14:00:00

By: Bodystat Ltd.

Knowing how much excess fluid should be removed to achieve Dry Weight during Dialysis can be challenging for any clinician. Bodystat’s solution is to use the Impedance values and Illness Marker before, during and after Dialysis to monitor the fluid status, mainly the extra-cellular fluid level. Using these values may then assist the clinician during the next Dialysis session to achieve the optimum dry weight.


Could you be compromising your fitness regime?

2015-02-16 10:11:09

By: Bodystat Ltd

So you’ve started your New Year fitness regime, the workouts are long and hard and you put in 100%, but still not reaping the benefits you were expecting?

You could be missing something in your nutrition.

When we put ourselves through an extensive exercise regime, there’s a higher demand on the body to function at optimum level, however when we are not eating or absorbing the right kind of nutrients, our bodies are put under strain and performance is compromised.

Malnutrition is not only a huge problem in developing countries, but has become an ever increasing issue in first world countries, resulting in the same health detriments.

There are an estimated 3 million malnourished people in the UK at any time, with many more at risk of becoming malnourished; (source:

Malnutrition, or vitamin and mineral deficiency, has been known to cause the following:

• skin problems or rashes • swelling or oedema • poor vision at night or in dim light • feeling out of breath and tired all the time • bone and joint pain

It is important to note that Daily Nutrition is very different to Sports Nutrition. When eating for sports training, you will require an entirely different diet, an excess of calories including high doses of protein at regular intervals throughout the day, and a balanced amount of certain vitamins and minerals. Normally you will be building muscle mass which requires the right amount of protein intake at specific times during your training routine. To find out more, go to:

The NHS list several symptoms of malnourishment:

  • feeling tired all the time and lacking energy
  • frequently getting infections
  • taking a long time to recover from infections
  • delayed wound healing
  • poor concentration
  • difficulty keeping warm
  • depression

The NHS also states that the best way to assess malnourishment is by monitoring your BMI (Body Mass index) which essentially is your weight(kg) divided by your height (cm) squared.

As simple as this calculation is, the BMI calculator does not differentiate between fat and muscle mass, as it only takes into account your overall weight. If you are lifting weights, your muscle mass will increase, actually elevating your BMI indicating an unhealthy outcome when in fact the opposite is true.

BMI can therefore be a very inaccurate measurement of health and more fitness professionals are now looking at measuring body composition to establish an accurate assessment of health.

A very quick, inexpensive and non-invasive method to measure body composition can be carried out with a portable Bodystat machine which uses bio-electrical impedance (BIA) to accurately measure the quantity of fat, lean muscle and water you have in your body.

You are therefore able to track these measurements as you build muscle or lose body fat. This can be a very encouraging and motivational tool when embarking on a fitness regime, giving you insights and daily trending information to monitor your progress.

To find out more, visit Bodystat at the Body Power Show from the 15-17th May in Birmingham on Stand M56 in Hall 19.

Could you be compromising your fitness regime?

How do you track your body composition?

2015-10-23 12:01:09

By: Bodystat Ltd

Understanding correct body composition is key when developing the fitness and health of individuals.

The medical industry states that one of the best ways to assess healthy weight is by monitoring your BMI (Body Mass index) which essentially is your weight in kilograms divided by your height in metres squared.

As simple as this calculation is, the BMI calculator does not differentiate between fat and muscle mass, as it only takes into account your overall weight. If you are lifting weights, your muscle mass will increase, actually elevating your BMI indicating an unhealthy outcome when in fact the opposite is true.

BMI can therefore be a very inaccurate measurement of health and more fitness professionals are now looking at measuring body composition to establish an accurate assessment of health. By monitoring changes in fat, lean mass and fluid, it also creates a healthy understanding of what is happening inside the body and how the body works, motivating people to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

A very quick, inexpensive and non-invasive method to measure body composition can be carried out with a portable Bodystat machine which uses bio-electrical impedance (BIA) to accurately measure the quantity of fat, lean muscle and water you have in your body.

The test works by laying the subject down and applying two electrodes to the hand and the foot. A small electrical frequency is passed through the body and measurements of the resistance and reactance to the flow of the current made.

You are therefore able to track these measurements as you build muscle, lose fat or monitor hydration which is essential for peak performance. This can be encouraging and motivational when embarking on a fitness regime, giving you insights and daily trending information to monitor your progress.

Results can be downloaded via Bluetooth directly into our NEW BIAS Windows software or a portable printer for instant analysis. The NEW BIAS Software is recommended when performing repeat tests on the same subject to track changes in body composition via graphic reports.

Many of our customers use Bodystat as a valuable revenue earner by charging for each of the BODYSTAT tests or alternatively as a motivation and promotional tool, providing a value-added service to sell on to new or existing customers.

Based on feedback from its large customer base, the benefits of the BODYSTAT technology is its high-tech innovative method of measuring body composition. Not only is it quick to do the test but also portable and non-invasive with good reproducible qualities that don’t require any degree of skill or training.

Established in 1990 and celebrating its 25 years in business, Bodystat Ltd is a British company and are the developers of one of the World’s leading bio-impedance systems.

How do you track your body composition?

What is Phase Angle?

2015-10-26 12:54:00

By: Bodystat

Phase Angle has long been linked to nutritional status. This marker is fast becoming recognised as a global health marker in total body health assessment.

So how does it work?

Phase Angle is a direct measurement, (not a calculation using equations) of your cell membrane.

Your cell membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer comprising of a hydrophilic (water loving) head, and hydrophobic (water hating) tails.

The conducting ball of the membrane is positioned either side of an insulating middle (hydrophobic) making up the cell membrane. When there are two conducting materials surrounding an insulator we call this a capacitor. A capacitor is a device that stores electrons. This is principally what the membrane does. It acts as a capacitor, similar to a battery.

When the cell membrane (or capacitor) loses its ability to function efficiently (ie in cases of malnutrition or disease) it effectively loses its ability to store electrons and can no longer function as an effective capacitor. This is what the Phase Angle picks up. The Phase Angle is the measurement of the functionality of the cell membrane, ie how well our battery is working. If there are leaks in the cell membrane the ability of the cell membrane to hold on to voltage will decrease, thus the Phase Angle will decrease.
A high Phase Angle shows good health, and a low Phase Angle shows a worse status of health.

Please remember that individual’s Phase Angles are very different, and as it stands at the moment, there are no standardisations for population groups.

There are two elements in Phase Angle: Reactance (X) and Resistance (R).

The phase angle φ is the shift between AC current and voltage on the measured impedance (50kHz).

The expression for the phase angle φ is: φ = arctg X/R

Reactance reflects the body cell mass, and the resistance reflects the water or fluid in the body.

Thus fluid and muscle mass will influence the Phase Angle.

A higher Phase Angle could mean an increase in muscle mass (body cell mass) or a decrease in fluid, either from recovery from infection or injury (a good thing!) or a decrease in fluid from dehydration (a bad thing!). A loss of fat could also increase Phase Angle.

A lower Phase Angle could mean a loss of muscle mass (a bad thing), or an increase of fluid (rehydrating which is a good thing, or sign of inflammation or infection – a bad thing), or gaining fat (which could be a good or bad thing depending on your state of health).

So in Summary:

Increased Phase Angle: 1) Gain in muscle mass 2) Decrease in fluid 3) Decrease in fat

Decreased Phase Angle: 1) Loss of muscle tissue 2) Increase in fluid 3) Increase in fat

A low phase angle will simply alert you into looking further as to what might be the case. The body composition measurements on your Bodystat machine will indicate further as to your status within the three body compartments estimated by BIA. So through a full body measurement you should have an idea why your Phase Angle is high or low.

What is Phase Angle?

How to define body composition: what it is and how we do it

2016-01-06 16:09:06

By: Bodystat Ltd

Bodystat has been in the advanced body composition analysis industry since 1990. We’re a global company and yet no matter where we are in the world, some of the first questions we’re asked are what is body composition? How does it relate to body mass index, or BMI? And how do we measure it? So, we thought we’d help.

What is body composition?

Essentially, body composition describes what the body is made up of, which is predominantly body fat, lean muscle mass, bones and, of course, water. Body composition is important because it gives us the opportunity to find out how healthy we really are, and not just on paper.

What does BMI measure?

Imagine two people. Both weigh the same and they’re the same height. The only difference is one is clearly very muscular, and the other obese. It is obvious to look at them that both do not have the same body composition and one is certainly healthier than the other. Yet, if you were to only see their body mass index (BMI), which is calculated as weight divided by height squared, they would look the same on paper.

BMI is clearly not the best way to properly monitor your health, which is why it is now being generally disregarded as an informative calculation of your health status.

What’s the best body composition test?

There are several ‘gold standard’ methods to measure body composition to true scientific and professional standards; however these can be expensive, inconvenient, time consuming and are usually only available to select health professionals.

These include DXA, or dual-energy X-ray obsorbtiometry, which measures bone mineral density and, by process of subtraction, soft tissue absorption and underwater, or hydrostatic weighing, which measures buoyancy relative to body mass and calculates fat free mass using Archimedes’ famous principle. How else can we calculate body composition?

Thankfully, other more convenient methods to measure body composition have since been developed. Each differs in accuracy and each takes an alternative approach to body composition analysis. They are skin fold callipers, bioelectrical impedance, and scales

In the next blog, we’ll talk about which method is the most accurate and why.

How to define body composition: what it is and how we do it

How measuring body composition accurately can greatly improve your fitness

2016-07-06 14:47:19

By: Bodystat

So thе ԛuеѕtіоn is this: іf уоu рlаn tо сhаngе your еаtіng habits to lоѕе wеіght or juѕt fоr health rеаѕоnѕ, what іѕ thе baseline against whісh you wіll measure your progress аnd, ultіmаtеlу, ѕuссеѕѕ?

Whіlѕt уоu may knоw уоur wеіght, do you know what your weight comprises? Iѕ іt fаt? Lеаn tissue? Cеll mаѕѕ? Wаtеr? And hоw hеаlthу аrе уоu? Dо уоur сеllѕ funсtіоn properly? Arе nutrіеntѕ rеаdіlу аbѕоrbеd іntо уоur body? Arе tоxіс wаѕtе рrоduсtѕ еffісіеntlу rеmоvеd frоm уоur cells? Dоеѕ the аmоunt of wаtеr іn уоur bоdу соnѕtіtutе hеаlthу hуdrаtіоn оr wаtеr rеtеntіоn? Does уоur chronological аgе match your bіоlоgісаl аgе?

A соmmоn measure associated wіth dіеt, wеіght lоѕѕ, and health іѕ Body Mаѕѕ Indеx (BMI). Thіѕ has been used fоr a lоng tіmе аѕ an іndісаtоr of whеthеr or nоt wе are a "hеаlthу" weight fоr оur hеіght. It ѕtіll gоvеrnѕ ѕо much оf thе thinking not оnlу wіthіn the healthcare ѕеrvісеѕ, but аlѕо thе dіеt іnduѕtrу. Hоwеvеr, іt іѕ асknоwlеdgеd to bе a flаwеd measure. Flаwеd because it tаkеѕ nо ассоunt whаtѕоеvеr of your bodily mаkе-uр. You can have a fаbulоuѕlу tоnеd аnd muѕсulаr bоdу уеt bе dесlаrеd "оbеѕе" ассоrdіng tо the BMI mеаѕurе. Cоnvеrѕеlу, you саn be lіght, but рrеdоmіnаntlу соmроѕеd of fаttу tіѕѕuе, уеt bе соnѕіdеrеd to be аn appropriate weight аnd therefore by association thоught tо bе hеаlthу. Wе knоw, оf соurѕе, that the muѕсulаr реrѕоn іѕ thе оnе muсh mоrе likely tо enjoy good health, a great quality оf lіfе and longevity!

Othеr mеаѕurеѕ ѕuсh as calliper tests, hip: wаіѕt ratios etc. will readily tеll уоu аbоut the state оf the оutѕіdе оf уоur bоdу, but they wіll tell you vеrу little, аt best, about whаt іѕ gоіng оn bеnеаth your ѕkіn. Fundamentally these tests tell you lіttlе mоrе thаn whаt уоu саn rеаdіlу judgе bу looking іn thе mіrrоr оr frоm thе fіt of your сlоthеѕ - аrе уоu enjoying your ideal bоdу іmаgе?

And whаt about your health?

It'ѕ tіmе tо introduce уоu tо уоur BODY COMPOSITION.

"Bоdу Cоmроѕіtіоn" іѕ essentially thе tесhnісаl term uѕеd tо dеѕсrіbе thе balance of thе dіffеrеnt соmроnеntѕ thаt mаkе uр our bodies. At thе most simplistic lеvеl, ѕоmе реорlе in thе diet аnd fіtnеѕѕ іnduѕtrу соnѕіdеr it tо be a mеаѕurе оf the relative rаtіоѕ of fаt mаѕѕ tо fаt-frее mass. If уоu іnvеѕtіgаtе thіѕ further you wіll fіnd thаt others еxраnd оn thаt tо іnсludе muѕсlе, bone, organs аnd оthеr bоdіlу tissues. A mеdісаl dictionary dеfіnіtіоn brеаkѕ thіѕ dоwn further into thе rеlаtіvе рrороrtіоnѕ оf protein, fаt, water, аnd mineral соmроnеntѕ іn thе bоdу.

Lеt'ѕ соnѕіdеr a more ѕорhіѕtісаtеd view of body composition: wе'll define іt as thе bаlаnсе оf your bіо-сhеmісаl mаkе-uр, іn tеrmѕ оf:

Fat, whісh іѕ mаdе uр оf: Essential fаtѕ / lіріdѕ Nоn-еѕѕеntіаl fаtѕ Wаtеr Fat-free mаѕѕ - whісh comprises? Muѕсlе Bоnе Orgаnѕ Tіѕѕuеѕ It'ѕ аlѕо еѕѕеntіаl fоr us tо recognize thаt muscle, bоnе, оrgаnѕ and оthеr tіѕѕuеѕ are аll mаdе uр оf specialized сеllѕ, аnd thаt thеу are іn turn mаdе up оf proteins/amino асіdѕ, fаtѕ/lіріdѕ, minerals/trace еlеmеntѕ and wаtеr.

Whу іѕ it іmроrtаnt to thіnk оf bоdу соmроѕіtіоn to thіѕ lеvеl of detail? Wеll, оur bоdіеѕ rеԛuіrе nutrіtіоnаl ѕuрроrt fоr all these things - аnd іf wе don't рrореrlу understand thеѕе buіldіng blосkѕ, then we wоn't properly undеrѕtаnd hоw to nоurіѕh ourselves properly, or to рrоvіdе all thе tооlѕ our bоdіеѕ nееd tо develop, mаіntаіn, repair thеmѕеlvеѕ.

Bесаuѕе mоѕt weight lоѕѕ оr hеаlthу еаtіng rеgіmеѕ fаіl to tаkе into ассоunt bоdу соmроѕіtіоn - еіthеr to рrоtесt it оr еvеn tо іmрrоvе іt - thеу have a grеаt роtеntіаl tо саuѕе hаrm. Enѕurіng уоu knоw your оwn body composition аt thе оutѕеt еmроwеrѕ уоu tо plan уоur dіеt ассоrdіnglу to ensure уоu соnѕumе аll thе nutrіеntѕ that уоur оwn unique bоdу requires. Thеrе іѕ nо оnе-ѕіzе-fіtѕ-аll dіеt where bоdу composition іѕ соnсеrnеd. Bоdу соmроѕіtіоn іѕ tоtаllу unique to еасh оf us, аnd thеrеfоrе оur dіеtѕ nееd tо bе іndіvіduаllу tаіlоrеd.

How measuring body composition accurately can greatly improve your fitness

What is Oxidative Stress and what does it mean for me?

2016-08-02 10:03:42

By: Bodystat

So what is oxidative stress?

Oxіdаtіоn is the сhеmісаl rеасtіоn thаt makes іrоn ruѕt аnd a cut аррlе turn brоwn whеn lеft exposed to аіr.

In thе body, оxіdаtіvе stress іѕ a сhеmісаl іmbаlаnсе that рrоmоtеѕ thе оxіdаtіоn of оur сеllѕ and tіѕѕuеѕ. The mаіn аgеntѕ оf this process аrе сhеmісаlѕ called free rаdісаlѕ; thеѕе аrе hіghlу rеасtіvе molecules thаt hаvе lost one оf thеіr еlесtrоnѕ. Thеу thеn аttасk another mоlесulе аnd ѕtеаl its еlесtrоn. Thіѕ causes damage to thаt molecule аnd thе рrосеѕѕ thеn carries onto thе next mоlесulе аnd ѕо on аnd so on.

This сhаіn rеасtіоn hаѕ serious соnѕеԛuеnсеѕ fоr оur health, еѕресіаllу if thе mоlесulе іѕ раrt оf a cell mеmbrаnе, an еnzуmе оr раrt оf DNA.

Free rаdісаlѕ аrе tаlkеd аbоut еvеrуwhеrе аѕ if everyone undеrѕtаndѕ whаt thеу аrе. In fасt, the tеrm "frее rаdісаl" is nоt easily undеrѕtооd bу mоѕt since іt rеԛuіrеѕ аn understanding оf chemistry at a lеvеl thаt іѕ bеуоnd whаt mоѕt оf uѕ knоw оr rеmеmbеr about chemical reactions. Sure, many оf us may have hеаrd about thе "free rаdісаl" іn school and сеrtаіnlу іn the nеwѕ; hоwеvеr, learning a scientific fасt оr thеоrу and bеіng able tо аррlу the рrіnсірlе іn real life are very different.

If оnе mаkеѕ an аnаlоgу tо the еffесtѕ of oxidation in оur еvеrуdау lives (аѕ wіth the еxаmрlе of ruѕt or tаrnіѕh) іt is еаѕіеr tо undеrѕtаnd whаt the еffесtѕ of оxіdаtіоn саn bе оn оur body over tіmе. Tаkе the ruѕt аnd tarnish concept one step furthеr and уоu can see hоw thе ѕlоw, dеѕtruсtіvе рrосеѕѕ оf оxіdаtіоn lеаdѕ tо thе ріttіng оf іrоn аnd thе соmрlеtе corrosion/disintegration оf mеtаlѕ.

Frее rаdісаlѕ соmе іn a variety оf sources іnсludіng cell metabolism, аіr роllutіоn, cigarette smoke, рооr diet and еxсеѕѕіvе drіnkіng. Thе free rаdісаl thеоrу fоr aging is thаt thе damage frее rаdісаlѕ cause tо thе сеllѕ and tissues іѕ thе key fоrсе bеhіnd thе аgіng рrосеѕѕ.

Our bоdіеѕ do have аn іntеrnаl dеfеnѕе ѕуѕtеm against frее rаdісаlѕ, but we can аlѕо аѕѕіѕt іn this on gоіng bаttlе bу taking іn dіеtаrу antioxidants.

Thеѕе are nаturаl chemical соmроundѕ fоund іn fооd that are absorbed bу the body that hеlр tо nеutrаlіzе frее rаdісаlѕ bеfоrе that саn do damage to the сеllѕ and tіѕѕuеѕ.

There аrе thоuѕаndѕ оf these соmроundѕ that come frоm fruіtѕ, vеgеtаblеѕ аnd whоlе grains. We nееd to consume a vаrіеtу оf dіеtаrу аntіоxіdаntѕ tо рrоvіdе protection tо all our сеllѕ іn thе bоdу against thе wіdе vаrіеtу оf frее radicals thаt attack thе сеllѕ.

Dіffеrеnt antioxidants protect us frоm dіffеrеnt frее radicals аnd different antioxidants аrе ассumulаtеd іn different tіѕѕuеѕ. Antioxidants аlѕо wоrk bеttеr in grоuрѕ.

Aѕ thе nаmе states, dietary antioxidants саn only bе соnѕumеd thоugh thе diet оr bу tаkіng dіеtаrу ѕuррlеmеntѕ and wе nееd thеѕе vаѕt аmоuntѕ every day. Rеgаrdlеѕѕ оf hоw gооd оur diet іѕ, supplements аrе a nесеѕѕіtу to tаkе еvеrу day аnd рlау аn important role іn the fight against degenerative disease.

What is Oxidative Stress and what does it mean for me?

The Problem with Lazy Summer Holidays

2016-08-09 11:10:34

By: Bodystat Ltd

In UK only 10 per cent of children start primary school obese and most toddlers (84 per cent) are unable to manage one full hour of physical activity. The rising epidemic of obesity in children is connected to the fact that children are less active in holidays than term time. The research of UK Active has shown results clearly pointing to the downfall of fitness gains in UK. It tells us how most children in UK are falling into the disease ridden habit of inactivity. The results are disturbing and provide us the bare facts that inactivity leads to lower educational attainment and concentration, and higher risk of adolescent mental health problems.

Lead author Dr Steven Mann, research director at health body UK Active said: “This research shows for the first time that the UK’s youth inactivity pandemic stems from inactive summer holidays.”

Children are left to their own devices and usually provided electronic devices to obsess over. Parents have neglected to provide healthy life styles and this is not a problem of a few families but it is the current living style of most families; also termed as the couch potato lifestyles. Primary school children are not achieving the recommended level of physical activity which is putting their long term health at risk.

Dr. Steven said: “we’re tackling childhood obesity with a PE and sport premium, rather than focusing on activity.”

We need to engage children in fun physical activities, and yet necessarily not in a sporting environment. Parents and teachers need to educate children on the benefits of the recommended 60 minutes a day of physical activity and ensure that they achieve it. The government also needs to focus on long delayed childhood obesity strategy and promote physical activity programs such as the Play makers program, daily mile initiative, golden mile initiative etc.

BBC News reported that parents are very unlikely to spot obesity in their own children: and often under-estimate the weight of their child.

UK Active recommends that parents be guided about unstructured play in the Early Years, informed of excessive screen-time, and the general mistakes made which lead to inactivity.

All in all we need to step up and take responsibility before UK loses its next generation to obesity.

Bodystat Ltd (IOM)

The Problem with Lazy Summer Holidays

Body Composition at the Bedside

Ref : VAL001

Ghosh S  Meister D  Cowen S  Hannan WJ  Ferguson A

European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 1997 Aug;9(8):783-8

To evaluate the use of an inexpensive hand-held bioelectric impedance analysis machine (Bodystat 1500, Bodystat Ltd., Isle of Man) which measures lean body mass, by technical comparisons against standard instruments and techniques (an in-house bioelectric impedance machine and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), and by performing body composition analyses in groups of potentially malnourished patients.Read More »

Comparative evaluation of body composition methods and predictions, and calculation of density and hydration fraction of fat-free mass, in obese women

Ref : VAL002

Fuller NJ  Sawyer MB  Elia M

Interntional Journal of Obesity (1994) 18, 503-512

The objective of this study was to apply a three-component model of body composition to a group of obese women in order to (a) establish the relative value of a number of readily available prediction equations by comparison of the extent of agreement between these predictions and body composition estimated by the model and other reference methods and (b) evaluate density and hydration of fat-free mass. Read More »

Comparison of Bio-Impedance Spectroscopy and Multi-Frequency Bio-Impedance Analysis for the Assessment of Extracellular and Total Body Water in Surgical Patients

Ref : VAL003

Hannan WJ  Cowen S  Plester CE  Fearon KC  deBeau A

Clinical Science (Lond) 1995 Dec;89(6):651-8

Measurements of extracellular and total body water provide useful information on the nutritional status of surgical patients and may be estimated from whole-body bio-impedance measurements at different frequencies. Read More »

Nutrition Index Determined By a Portable Multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Machine

Ref : VAL004

Keller W  Cowen S  Hannan WJ  Ghosh S

Assessment of malnutrition by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has the simplicity of portability and easy bedside use. Multifrequency BIA can measure extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass. Our aim was to assess body composition in patients with GI diseases and malnutrition by dualfrequency BIA and validate this in healthy volunteers. Read More »

Fluid Hydration Status Assessment in Behavioral Medicine Research: Seven-Day Test-Retest Reliability.

Ref : VAL005

Shanholtzer B.A.  Patterson S.M.

Annals of Behavioral Medicine; 2002, 24, S133

Adequate hydration is crucial in maintaining optimal physical and mental functioning and the need for a fast and reliable hydration status assessment in behavioral medicine research has become increasingly important. The main goal of this study was to determine the reliability of bioelectrical impedance in assessing total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW). A second goal was to determine reliability of using TBW, ECW, ICW, hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hgb) as markers for identifying chronically hypo-hydrated and hyper-hydrated individuals.Read More »

Hydration Status and Cardiovascular Psychophysiology

Ref : VAL006

Patterson S.M.  France CR  Prause LM  Gill M

Psychophysiology, 39, S64

The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between individual differences in hydration status and cardiovascular functioning (resting levels and reactivity) during two laboratory manipulations: posture change and an intense surgery video.Read More »

Relationship Between Hydration Enhancement and Blood Pressure: More Is Better.

Ref : VAL007

Patterson S.M.  Spinks DE

Pyschophysiology, 39, S65

The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between long-term increases in hydration status and resting blood pressure. Total body water (TBW), intracellular body water (ICW), extracellular body water (ECW), and percentage of total body water by weight (TBW%) were assessed via electrical bio-impedance (MultiScan 5000, BodyStat, Ltd) in 40 undergraduate students during two laboratory sessions: Read More »

Low Fat, Low Glycemic Index Ad Libitum Diet Induces Weight Loss Preserves Lean Body Mass in Obese Healthy Subjects. Results of a 24 week study

Ref : VAL009

Bahadori B  Brath H  Muchitsch R  Trinker M  Uitz E  Yazdani-Biuki B  Zenz M  Krejs GJ

Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 7, 2005, 290-293

Obesity with its related diseases is one of the major health problems in Western countries. In the USA and Europe more then 40% of the population are overweight (1).The classical treatment of obesity, based on decreased caloric intake, has not been successful. Approximately two thirds of the people who lost weight usually regain it within one year's time, and almost all of them within a five year period (2). The underlying mechanisms of this dietary failure are various. One of most important reasons for weight regain after a caloric restriction is the significant loss of lean body mass, leading to a decreased energy expenditure (3) and a decrease in fat oxidation (4). Reducing fat intake without caloric restriction has been the primary focus of many dietary interventions within the last twenty years. It could clearly be shown that this so-called low fat carbohydrate ad libitum diet is capable of inducing a significant weight loss. The results, however, are modest (5,6). There is also growing evidence of a beneficial effect of diets using low glycemic carbohydrate in treating obesity (7). Low glycemic index (GI) foods may favour weight loss by promoting fat oxidation at the expense of carbohydrate oxidation (7). The low GI diets may induce a higher satiety and, as a consequence, better compliance of patients (8). No trial has so far studied the combined long term effect of fat reduced and ad libitum low glycemic carbohydrate diet on weight loss, body composition changes and the compliance of patients. Read More »

Calculation of Lean Body Mass Using Bio-Impedance Analysis Could Be Used To Accurately Determine Heparin/Protamine Dosage For Obese Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Ref : VAL010

Skoyles J  Shajar M  Skinner H  Richens D  Mitchell I

Cardiothoracic Unit, Nottingham City Hospital Trust

The association between obesity and coronary disease has long been recognised by clinicians. According to Department of Health statistics, the prevalence of obesity doubled in Britain between 1980 and 1991 and is continuing to increase. At present 43% of men and 29% of women in the UK are ‘overweight’ with a body mass index (BMI) >27. The number of overweight patients presenting for cardiac surgery has increased significantly over the last decade. Read More »

Comparison of three methods for assessment of body fat content

Ref : VAL011

Maughan RJ

University of Aberdeen, University Medical School, Foresthill, Aberdeen, AB9 2ZD

There is much interest in the measurement of body fat content in view of the well established association between an increased degree of fatness and a variety of disease processes. Direct measurements of fat content are not possible except after death, and in humans, only a limited number (n=10) of such measurements have been made. A variety of indirect methods have been proposed; of these, hydrostatic weighing, which measures body density, is generally recognized as the most “accurate” method, but this may be misleading as none of these indirect methods has ever been validated directly (Martin and Drinkwater, 1991). Read More »

Use of a three-component model for evaluation of density and hydration of fat-free mass and validation of body composition predicted from the same whole-body bio-electrical impedance measurement, in lean and obese women.

Ref : VAL012

Fuller NJ  Sawyer MB  Elia M

Abstracts of Communications 1993 (66A)

The aims of the present study were twofold: (1) to evaluate fat-free mass (FFM) density and hydration (Dffm and Hffm respectively) using a three-component reference model (Fuller et al. 1992) in discrete groups of twelve lean (body mass index 20.9 (SD 2.1) kg/m2; body fat 24.4 (SD 3.1) % and fifteen obese (body mass index 42.8 (SD 8.8) kg/m2; body fat 48.0 (SD 6.8) %) women; and (2) to establish the extent of agreement between body composition estimates obtained with this model and eight different predictions of the same whole-body bio-electrical impedance (BI) measurement (see Fuller, 1993). Read More »

Improve estimation of body composition in elderly subjects by use of age-specific prediction equations

Ref : VAL014

Reilly JJ  Reilly JJ  Murray LA  Murray LA  Wilson J  Durnin JVGA

Bio-electrical impedance (BEI) is now widely used for estimation of body composition in a variety of fields including clinical nutrition, public health nutrition, and exercise physiology. We have previously shown (Reilly et al, In Press) that one of the more commonly used predictive equations for estimation of body fat percentage (BF%) in elderly subjects systematically overestimates fatness, and that more generally applicable software (Cranlea & Co. Ltd.) predicted fatness with less bias and narrower limits of agreement. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that estimation of fatness might be improved by use of commercial age-specific impedance software (Bodystat Ltd.).Read More »

The use of multiple frequency bioimpedance to assess fluid balance in critical illness

Ref : VAL016

Campbell IT  Han  Bolton M  Nightingale P  Columb MO  Brookes SJ

(1998) Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 53:62A

Critically ill patients retain fluid, up to 30 litres and more. In individuals ill for prolonged periods it is virtually impossible to assess fluid balance accurately, but as a non-invasive method of doing so bioimpedance has its obvious attractions. We have previously described the use of single frequency (50kHz) impedance to assess body water in these individuals but the inter-individual errors were too large to be acceptable (Foley et al. 1998). The correlation ® between conductance (height²/impedance) at multiple frequencies (5-500 kHz; Multiscan 5000, Bodystat Ltd, Douglas, Isle of Man) and body water (measured using deuterium analysed by Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry following equilibration with H2) was investigated in ten critically ill patients; in three patients multiple measurements were made, in two on four occasions and in one on six.Read More »

Effects of Training and Creatine Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Body Mass

Ref : VAL017

Francaux M  Poortmans JR

Eur J Appl Physiol (1999) 80: 165-168.

During the last few years, athletes expecting to improve their physical performance have consumed dietary creatine supplements. The only documented secondary effect seems to be an increase of the body mass and more specifically of the fat free mass. This change in body composition could be explained in two ways. Firstly, the increase of free creatine concentration in the cells could induce water retention and thus modify the relative volume of the intra-cellular compartment. Secondly, creatine in itself, could induce muscle growth. The purpose of this study was to test these hypotheses. Read More »

Effect of Exogenous Creatine Supplementation on Muscle PCr Metabolism

Ref : VAL018

Francaux M  Francaux M  Demeure R  Demeure R  Goudemant JF  Poortmans JR

Int J Sports Med 2000; 21: 139-145

NMR was used to assess the influence of two weeks creatine supplementation (21 g . d-1) on resting muscle PCr concentration, on the rate of PCr repletion (Rdepl), and on the half-time of PCr repletion (t1/2). Body Mass (BM) and volume of body water compartments were also estimated by impedance spectroscopy.Read More »

Pilot Study of the effect of a collagen hydrolysate supplement, Slendernight, on inch and weight loss.

Ref : VAL019

The Shadi Danin Clinic, Hove, BN3 4SL. England

Trial Dates: 1 June 2001 - 25 July 2001 (8 weeks)

12 volunteers completed an 8 week trial of the collagen hydrolysate supplement Slendernight. 10 women and 2 men aged between 18 and 72. One was lost to follow up due to travelling overseas. All volunteers wished to slim, but ranged from near average to clearly obese at baseline. All had tried previous slimming and diet plans, with poor results. The trial results were highly satisfactory with an average reduction over 8 weeks of 5.09cm (2”) in waist measurement and of 6.64% in body fat weight. Participants also noticed a range of other benefits including better sleep, improved skin and higher energy levels. All participants expressed themselves satisfied with their results, and wished to continue taking the product. Ideally the trial would have been continued to 12 weeks, when much more emphatic changes could be observed, however for practical reasons it was decided to finish the trial before the onset of the August holiday period.Read More »

Bedside methods versus dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurement in COPD.

Ref : VAL020

Steiner MC  Barton RL  Singh SJ  Morgan MD

Eur Respir J 2002 Apr; 19(4): 626-31

The measurement of body composition is of value in the nutritional assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of the present study was to compare two bedside methods for the measurement of body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as a reference method. Read More »

Estimating Body Composition of Children by Multi-Frequency Bioimpedance

Ref : VAL021

C Michel Daubrosse  S Petit  S Meeuwsen  R Hankard

Translation from French: The single frequency (50 kHz) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) technology is a non-invasive, simple and quick technique for estimating Lean Body Mass (LBM) and Fat Mass (FM). Multi-frequency BIA allows, in addition, the estimation of intra and extra-cellular water because at a low frequency the current is unable to penetrate the body cell membrane whereas at a high frequency the current is able to penetrate the entire membrane. The multi-frequency unit Bodystat® Quadscan 4000 delivers only a measure of impedance (Z in Ω) at four frequencies and not a resistance (R in Ω) nor a reactance (Xc in Ω) used in most of the equations convenient for children.Read More »

History of anorexia nervosa inbulimic patients: its influence on body composition.

Ref : VAL023

Vaz FJ  Guisado JA  Peñas Lledó EM

International Journal of Eating Disorders 2003; 34:148-155

To analyze the body composition of a group of patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN), comparing the patients who had a past history of DSM-IV anorexia nervosa (AN) with those without such a history, in order to determine a) whether both groups differed in terms of body composition, and b) whether the differences between groups could be the consequence of the past condition. Read More »

Non-volitional assessment of skeletal muscle strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Ref : VAL026

Man WDC  Soliman MGG  Nikoletou D  Harris ML  Rafferty GF  Mustfa N  Polkey MI  Moxham J

Thorax 2003; 58: 665-669

Although quadriceps weakness is well recognised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the aetiology remains unknown. In disabled patients the quadriceps is a particularly underused muscle and may not reflect skeletal muscle function as a whole. Loss of muscle function is likely to be equally distributed if the underlying pathology is a systemic abnormality. Conversely, if deconditioning and disuse are the principal aetiological factors, weakness would be most marked in the lower limb muscles. Read More »

Anti-fibrinolytic Agents & Lung Water in Cardiac Surgical Patients Interim results of a prospective randomised double blind placebo controlled trial

Ref : VAL027

Diprose P  Dawkins S  Gill R  Herbertson M  Deakin CD

Abstract and poster presented in Miami at the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists meeting end April 2003.

Lung injury causes the accumulation of lung water after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)1 resulting in significant morbidity. Anti-inflammatory actions of aprotinin might be expected to reduce the amount of lung water present post-CPB. We report the interim results of a prospective randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of aprotinin v. tranexamic acid v. placebo using a novel device that can measure impedance non-invasively to attempt to give trends in extra-cellular lung water over timeRead More »

Comparation Of The Estimated Phase Angle For Different Bioimpedacia Devices

Ref : VAL028

M Cecilia F Assuncao  Silvana I Paiva  Aluísio JD de Barros

Presentation June 2004 in Brazil by M. Cristina G. B. e Silva.

The phase angle (PA) is a measure obtained directly through Electric Bioimpedance (EB), like the arctangent of the ratio between reactance and resistence. Studies suggest that it can represent an indirect measuring of the body cellular mass (BCM), thus playing an important role as a prognostic indicator in diverse clinical situations. As such, devices such as Bodystat®, in which the impedance value is supplied rather than the resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) values, have limited use in such situations, as the attainment of the PA becomes impossible. In more up-to-date multi-frequency models, it is possible to estimate resistance, reactance and PA through a program that uses the impedances at frequencies of 5, 50, 100 and 200 kHz. Read More »

Body composition in Heart failure patients with anemia

Ref : VAL031

Ramirez EC  Martinez LC  Tejeda AO  Torres-Villanueva F  Rodriguez RS  Jimenez-Diaz V  García JD  Rene Narváez David

European Journal of Heart Failure. 2004:S98-379.

Heart failure (HF) patients with anemia have worse prognosis. It could be resulted of kidney disease, excessive cytokine production or increased plasma volume. Hemodilution may occur in patients appearing euvolemic on clinical examination. So, detection of hipervolemic status before clinical signs appeared is very important. Whether hemodilution or true anemia, are related with worse cardiac function was the objective of this cross sectional studyRead More »

Body fat measurement in Indian men: comparison of three methods based on a two-compartment model

Ref : VAL032

Bhat DS  Yajnik CS  Sayyad MG  Raut KN  Lubree HG  Rege SS  Chougule SD  Shetty PS  Yudkin JS  Kurpad AV

International Journey of Obesity (2005) 0, 000-000

Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes and related disorders. The current classification of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), which is a surrogate for the total body fat. Since the relationship between BMI and body fat varies in different populations, an independent validation of the BMI-body fat relationship in the population of interest is desirable. Read More »

Impact of a protein and energy dense nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid on weight-losing patients with head and neck cancer

Ref : VAL033

Weed HG  Gaff RL  Ferguson ML  Deluca KS  Hustead DS  Knox VL  Voss AC

2005 American Society of Clinical Oncology, Abstract No: 8112

Patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (HNSCCa) often lose weight. Under-nutrition is associated with increased postoperative complications and mortality (Nozoe, 2002). A protein and energy dense nutritional supplement (SUP) containing the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can increase weight and lean body mass (LBM), and improve physical activity and quality of life in pancreatic cancer patients (Fearon et al, 2003; Moses et al, 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of pre- and peri-operative use of the SUP on weight-losing HNSCCa patients. Read More »

Estimate of Body Water Compartments and of Body Composition in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: Comparison of Single and Multifrequency Bioimpedance Analysis

Ref : VAL034

Donadio C  Consani C  Ardini M  Bernabini G  Caprio F  Grassi G  Lucchesi A  Nerucci B

Journal of Renal Nutrition, Vol 15, No 3 (July), 2005: pp 332-344

The goal of this study was to compare the adequacy of single and multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (BIA) to evaluate body water compartments, body composition, and nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Read More »

Body composition, hydratation status and ultrafiltrate per session evaluated by bioelectrical impedance and dual X-ray absorptiometry in hemodyalisis.

Ref : VAL035

Atilano Ximena  Correa Rotter R  Espinosa MA

Poster presented at the American Society of Nephrology Congress (Renal Week) at Philadelphia, USA November 2005.

Patients in hemodyalisis programs present constant fluctuations in their hidratation status, therefore it's important to evaluate total body water and dry weight, in virtue of it's relation with the dialitic prescription and cardiovascular complications. The dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is consider as the gold standard to estimate body composition. The bioelectrical impedance (BIA) is a simple method, that can be use in a rapid and bedside manner at low cost that has demonstrated to be useful to evaluate the body composition, nevertheless, it has been questioned it's accuracy when compared to DXA in subjects with water retention. On other hand, the net ultrafiltrate volume per hemodyalisis session can be estimated by different methods, but the accuracy of these has not been evaluated.Read More »

Body Fat Composition: A Predictive Factor for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Ref : VAL036

Oğuz Öğretmenoğlu  Ahmet Emre Süslü  Ömer Taşkin Yücel  Tevfik Metin Önerci  Altay Şahin

Laryngoscope, 115:1493-1498, 2005

To investigate body fat composition, measured by bioelectrical impedance assay (BIA) using Bodystat®1500, for predicting the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Body fat composition was also compared with other wellknown OSAHS predictors such as body mass index BMI), neck circumference, and abdominal visceral fat. Read More »

Assessment of the Effects of the Changes at Dialysate Glucose and Sodium Content on the Hemodynamia by Bioimpedance Analysis

Ref : VAL037

Öztürk S  Demirel R  Güven Taymez D  Aysuna N  Şakar Ş  Çakir H  Ömer B  Yildiz A

Poster presented at the 22nd National Congress of Nephrology, Hypertension, Dialysis and Transplantation in Antalya, Turkey on the 16th - 20th November 2005

Assessment of the hemodynamic effects of the changes at the concentrations of dialysate glucose and sodium contents by bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Read More »

Electrical Bio-Impedance Devices: Are they all rated the same?

Ref : VAL038

Barbosa e Silva

Presented as an Abstract at the FELANPE Nutrition Congress in Montevideo, Uruguay on 7th November, 2005

The clinical utility of electrical bio-impedance has become increasingly widespread in spite of its limitations in some clinical situations. Different bio-impedance devices are commercialized although it is still uncertain whether the resistance values and reactance obtained from each one can be compared. This information is extremely useful for multi-centre studies, when attempting to produce standard equations in each population. Confirmation of comparable results would require the use of one sole instrument for obtaining data. A previous study demonstrated that the percentages of fat and muscle obtained from different instruments are not comparable. However, this difference may occur due to the use of different equations that are specific to each device, or different resistance and reactance values obtained by the devices.Read More »

Impedance Ratio: new multi-frequency electrical Bio-impedance functional assessment parameter

Ref : VAL039

Barbosa e Silva

Presented as an Abstract at the FELANPE Nutrition Congress in Montevideo, Uruguay on 7th November, 2005.

Electrical Bio-impedance (BIA) has proved to be a practical and simple method for assessing body composition in populational studies, whenever specific formulas are used for each population. In clinical situations, body composition obtained from BIA is still quite controversial, as the physical principles on which this method is based are not valid in these circumstances. The method has also been used as a prognosis indicator in different clinical situations through applying the phase angle. This parameter may be directly obtained from resistance and reactance values without using equations. The phase angle will indicate the state of “health” of the cell membrane, which results in a functional assessment method. In electrical Bio-impedance instruments that register only impedance values, this parameter cannot be estimated. In order to replace it, by using a multi-frequency instrument, it is possible to estimate the impedance ratio (IR) between the lowest and highest frequency. Healthy cell membranes make this ratio greater than 1, whilst different unhealthy cell situations result in a ratio of approximately 1. Read More »

Impedance ratio as a measure of water shifts.

Ref : VAL042

De Lorenzo A  Andreoli A  Deurenberg P

Ann Nutr Metab 41 (1997): 22-28.

Total and segmental body compositions (left arm and left leg) were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis at 5 and 100 kHz and by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 14 healthy young males (body mass index, mean +/- SD, 23.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m2) every 20 min for a period of 100 min. During the measurements the subjects remained in the supine position on the examination table, except for the time between the last two measurements, where they got up to walk around. Read More »

Nutritional aspects of body water dislocations in postoperative and depleted patients.

Ref : VAL043

Elwyn D H  Bryan-Brown C W  Shoemaker W C

Ann Surg. 1975 July; 182(1): 76-85

Measurements of plasma volume with 125I human serum albumin, extracellular water (ECW) with 82Br-minus, and total body water (TBW) with 3-H2O were made on 16 postoperative patients, 15 depleted patients, and three control subjects. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated as the difference between TBW and ECW. Read More »

How Good Is Clinical Examination In The Assessment Of Volume Status In Pd Patients?

Ref : VAL044

Gangji AS  Al-Helal B  Brimble S  Churchill DN  Margetts PJ

Abstract presented at American Society of Nephrology Meeting, Philadelphia PA, USA October 2005.

Clinical assessment of a PD patient’s volume status is of critical importance, but has not been studied extensively. We evaluated 18 stable, established PD patients with a structured clinical examination. This exam included 9 history and 10 physical exam items along with an overall summary assessment. We compared this with two objective measures of extracellular fluid volume: bioimpedance analysis (BIA, Quadscan 4000, BodyStat), and N terminal B-type naturietic propeptide (N-BNP, Roche Diagnostics). BIA has reasonable correlation with dilutional measures of fluid in dialysis patients. BNP has not been studied extensively in PD patients. Clinical assessment was carried out independently by 2 physicians who were blinded to BIA and BNP results. Read More »

Correlates Of Small Artery Compliance And Bioimpedance Phase Angle In Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

Ref : VAL045

Gangji AS  Al-Helal B  Brimble S  Churchill DN  Margetts PJ

Abstract presented at American Society of Nephrology Meeting, Philadelphia PA, USA October 2005.

characteristics of blood vessels. Analysis of the arterial waveform can be resolved into an index of elasticity for both large (LAEI) and small (SAEI) arteries. SAEI is a novel marker of endothelial function and reduced SAEI is prognostic for cardiac events. Phase angle derived from bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is presumed to indicate cell membrane health and decreased phase angle correlates with increased mortality in PD patients. We evaluated 18 stable, established PD patients with both BIA (Quadscan 4000, BodyStat) and pulse wave analysis (CR2000, Hypertension Diagnostics Inc). We assayed serum and overnight PD effluent for IL-6 and TNFα by ELISA (R&D Systems). Lipid profile, serum albumin, and CRP were also measured.Read More »

Increased Peritoneal Solute Transport Is Associated With Volume Expansion And Increased Peritoneal Inflammation

Ref : VAL046

Gangji AS  Al-Helal B  Winegard N  Brimble S  Churchill DN  Margetts PJ

Abstract presented at American Society of Nephrology Meeting, Philadelphia PA, USA October 2005.

Increased peritoneal solute transport is associated with decreased technique and patient survival in incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The postulated reasons for this include volume expansion and increased peritoneal inflammation. We studied the association between solute transport, volume expansion, and inflammation in 18 stable prevalent PD patients. Patients underwent multifrequency BIA (Quadscan 4000, BodyStat) followed by a Peritoneal Equilibration Test (PET). Serum and overnight PD effluent was assayed for TNFα and IL-6 by ELISA (R&D Systems). Serum was assayed for sensitive CRP. Waste:hip ratio (WHR) was measured prior to peritoneal fill.Read More »

Comparison of Air Displacement Plethysmography and Whole Body Bioelectrical Impedance in Middle-Aged Women

Ref : VAL047

Benton MJ  Swan PD

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2007, 39(5): S372

Hydrostatic weighing is the gold standard of body composition measurement. However, it is difficult to use due to a high participant burden. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP) provides an alternative that agrees within 1% body fat with hydrostatic weighing for both lean and obese adults. Although participant burden is decreased, use of ADP in the field remains problematic due to portability issues. A portable body composition measure is needed for field work that is both accurate and does not overly burden participants. Multifrequency whole body bioelectrical impedance (BIA) is both portable and involves minimal burden, but its accuracy in different populations has yet to be determined.Read More »

Comparing Sensitivity Of Non-invasive Markers Of Volume Response To Intravenous Furosemide In Patients With Acute Pulmonary Oedema

Ref : VAL048

Kam Chuen NG MJ  Lip GYH  MacFadyen RJ  Ferner RE

Abstract presented at the British Pharmacological Society Winter Meeting in December 2006 and as a Poster at the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure congress in Hamburg, June 2007.

Intravenous furosemide (ivF) remains the first line treatment for pulmonary oedema (1) yet individual patient response to ivF is variable (2, 3). There is a need for an accurate, non-invasive means to define volume response to ivF, so that the role of alternative or additional treatments can be addressed. Read More »

Whole Body And Right Lung Bioimpedance Are More Sensitive Than Proximal Bioimpedance At Predicting Response To Intravenous Furosemide In Patients With Acute Pulmonary Oedema

Ref : VAL049

Kam Chuen NG MJ  Lip GYH  MacFadyen RJ  Ferner RE

Abstract presented at the British Pharmacological Society Winter Meeting in December 2006

Bioimpedance (Ω) analysis (BIA) provides a potential measure of body water (1). BIA may predict decompensation in systolic heart failure (2). We tested the utility of BIA in assessing the acute response to intravenous furosemide (ivF) in pulmonary oedema. Read More »

Bioelectrical impedance and strength measurements in patients with heart failure: comparison with functional class.

Ref : VAL050

Martínez CL  Ramírez CE  Tejeda OA  Narváez DR  García JD

Nutrition. 2007 May; 23(5):412-8

Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) develop important changes in body composition. Nevertheless, the usual methods of body composition assessment can be misleading in patients with HF because tissue hydration is altered. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) works without making any assumption about constant soft tissue hydration. In this study, patients with HF and systolic dysfunction (HFS) and preserved systolic function (HFPSF) underwent a body composition evaluation by the BIVA method; the comparison was done between New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classes I-II and III-IV. Read More »

Body composition: the fat-free mass index (FFMI) and the body fat mass index (BFMI) distribution among the adult Austrian population - results of a cross-sectional pilot study

Ref : VAL051

Babak Bahadori  Uitz E  Tonninger Bahadori K  Pestemer Lach I  Trummer M  Thonhofer  Brath H  Schaflinger E

International Journal of Body Composition Research 2006 Vol. 4 No. 3: 123 - 128

It has been proven that low and high body mass index (BMI) values increase health risks and mortality, and are associated with variations in fat-free mass (FFM) and body fat mass (BF). Fat-free mass index (FFMI; kg/m2) however are better measures of body composition. FFMI and BFMI being age-, sex- and population specific, are more exact and informative measures. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine FFMI and BFMI values in subjects with normal, overweight, and obese BMI in Austria.Read More »

A bioelectrical impedance analysis equation for predicting total body water and fat-free mass in children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in the pre-HAART and HAART eras

Ref : VAL052

Joffe TH  Roubenoff R  Gorbach SL  Weinberg GA  Duggan C  Furuta L  Nicchitta J  Lipinczyk TM  Miller TL

International Journal of Body Composition Research 2005 Vol. 3 No. 1: 00-00

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used to measure body composition, however limited studies of its usefulness in children with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -1 infection exist. The objective of the study was to provide a BIA equation for predicting body composition in outpatient pediatric HIV populations, to compare performance of our equation to published equations derived from both non-HIV and HIV-positive pediatric populations and to evaluate performance of our equation developed in thepre-highly active antiretroviral (HAART) era, in a separate HIV-positive pediatric population on HAART. Read More »

Reliability And Detecting Change Following Short-term Creatine Supplementation: Comparison Of Two-component Body Composition Methods

Ref : VAL053


Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2007, 21(2), 378-384

The purpose of the present study was twofold: firstly, to assess the reliability of various body composition methods, and secondly, to determine the ability of the methods to estimate changes in fat-free mass (FFM) following creatine (Cr) supplementation. Read More »

Accuracy Of Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis And Bioimpedance Spectroscopy For Monitoring Fluid Distribution Changes In Women After Gastric Bypass Surgery

Ref : VAL054

Dobratz JR  Sibley D  Beckman TR  Valentine BJ  Kellogg TA  Ikramuddin S  Earthman CP

Presented as an abstract and poster at FNCE in Philadelphia, USA, 2007

As obesity and bariatric surgery become increasingly common, there is a growing need for a convenient body composition assessment tool that is accurate in extremely obese individuals. Obese individuals experiencing rapid weight loss after surgery can experience disproportionate losses of intracellular water (ICW), or body cell mass. The purpose of this research was to enhance patient care by evaluating the accuracy of two techniques to monitor changes in fluid distribution after gastric bypass surgery. Read More »

New body fat prediction equations for severely obese patients

Ref : VAL055

Horie LM  Barbosa e Silva  Torrinha RS  Túlio de Mello M  Cecconelloa I  Waitzberg D

Clinical Nutrition (2008) 27, 350-356

Severe obesity imposes physical limitations to body composition assessment. Our aim was to compare body fat (BF) estimations of severely obese patients obtained by bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) for development of new equations for BF prediction.Read More »

Body Composition Analysis In Chronically Ventilated Patients: An Additional Tool For Weaning Prediction

Ref : VAL056

Papirov G  Zaydenberg L  Theilla M  Cohen JD  Singer P

Presented at ESPEN in Florence, Italy September 2008

Chronically ventilated patients have nutritional modifications during their hospital stay. These parameters may influence the weaning from the ventilator process. Bio impedance technique could assess in a repetitive way the body composition of these patients and their ability to be weaned.Read More »

Measurement Of Illness Marker In Heart Surgery Patients

Ref : VAL057

Réka Kegyes Bozó

Presented at ESPEN in Florence, Italy September 2008

Integrity of the cells can be characterized by the measured impedance values at 200 kHz and 5 kHz Illness Marker (IM). Tracking IM over time cellular health can be predicted; may be a prognostic tool. Cells are non-conductive at low frequency (5 kHz) current passes in the extracellular space. Multifrequency bioimpedance analysis may provide insight into the compartmental changes. Multifrequency bioimpedance can be used in altered fluid distributionRead More »

Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Cellular Health in Mobile CKD Patients

Ref : VAL059

Mason L  KINGSLEY MIC  Rees JK  Ali PA  Rees E  Hilldrup I  Mikhail A

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN) 19:2008. Ref.PUB638

Large differences exist within CKD patients on haemodialysis, from relatively active transplant candidates (mobile CKD patients) to those who are sedentary and depend on healthcare support. Even the healthiest patients display frequent changes in hydration status and may show signs of cell membrane damage. Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measures impedance or resistance to currents at specified frequencies. Unlike high frequency current (200kHz), low frequency current (5kHz) cannot penetrate intact cell membranes. Consequently, impedance values at 5kHz should be high and the Illness Marker (the ratio of impedance values at 200 and 5kHz) should be low. The aim of this study was to compare impedance values and the Illness Marker in mobile CKD patients with healthy matched controls (Con).Read More »

Alteration in transthoracic impedance following cardiac surgery

Ref : VAL061

Khan NU  Strang T  Bonsheck C  Krishnamurty B  Hooper TL

Resuscitation (2008) 77, 374—378

Haemodynamically significant ventricular tachyarrhythmias are a frequent complication in the immediate post-operative period after cardiac surgery. Successful cardioversion depends on delivery of sufficient current, which in turn is dependent on transthoracic impedance (TTI). However, it is uncertain if there is a change in TTI immediately following cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Read More »

Razón de Impedancias: novo parámetro para evaluación funcional a partir de Bioimpedancia eléctrica multifrecuencial.

Ref : VAL062

Barbosa e Silva

Presented at FELANPE, November 2005

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) has been shown to be a simple and practical method of measuring body composition in population studies, provided that specific formulae for each population group are utilized. In clinical situations the body composition results obtained through BIA may therefore still be disputed, since the physical principles in which this method is based may not be valid under such circumstances. Another application of the method includes the assessment of Phase Angle in several clinical settings. This parameter can be obtained directly from the values of resistance and reactance without the use of equations. The Phase Angle indicates the status of “health” of the cell membrane, this therefore being a method of functional evaluation. In BIA instruments that register only impedance, this parameter cannot be determined. Instead, utilizing a multiple frequency instrument, it is possible to evaluate the difference of impedance values (RI) between the smaller and greater frequency Impedance values. The healthy cell membrane would be significantly greater than a value of 1, while diverse situations of illness would reflect a value approaching closer to 1.00. Read More »

Association Between N-Terminal Propeptide B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Markers of Hypervolemia

Ref : VAL066

Gangji AS  Al-Helal B  Churchill DN  Brimble S  Margetts PJ

Peritoneal Dialysis International, Vol. 28, pp. 308-311

Patients with end-stage renal disease have a higher risk of developing premature cardiovascular disease (1). Volume expansion in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is associated with cardiovascular disease (2); however, accurate volume assessment is difficult. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal propeptide BNP (N-BNP), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have been proposed as adjunctive measures to aid in diagnosing hypervolemia. B-type natriuretic peptide is a 32 amino acide peptide of cardiac origin that is released in response to ventricular wall stretch. The pro-hormone is cleaved to form an active and an inactive BNP molecule. The inactive N-BNP has a longer half-life. In dialysis patients, N-BNP is associated with cardiovascular and overall mortality; however, its role in predicting volume status in PD patients has not been extensively studied (3). Bioelectrical impedance analysis has been used in PD patients to determine volume status and correlates highly with gold standard isotope dilution methods (4). The impedance ratio determined at 5 kHz:200 kHz (5), the resistance-reactance (RXc) graph method proposed by Piccoli et al. (6), and the ratio of extracellular water to total body water (ECW:TBW) have all been shown to correlate with clinical evidence of hypervolemia. Other markers of hypervolemia in PD patients include high peritoneal transport status (7) and hypoalbuminemia (8). The aim of the present study was to determine if N-BNP correlates with markers of hypervolemia, as measured by BIA, serum albumin, and peritoneal transport status. A second objective was to test for correlations between N-BNP and troponin T (TnT), a marker of cardiovascular disease, and between N-BNP and phase angle, a surrogate marker predicting mortality in PD patients.Read More »

Illness Marker as a prognostic tool in intensive care unit: a prospective study

Ref : VAL067

Gonzalez MC  Maslonek J  Uliano GL  Munareto MM  Teixeira LO

Presented at the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Nutrition Week Congress, New Orleans, USA, February 2009 & Journal of Parental and Enteral Nutrition; Volume 33, Number 2. March-April 2009. SP-10. Page219.

Illness marker (IM) is a measurement obtained from multifrequencial bioelectrical impedance analysis (MBIA). It seems to stand for a general indicator of sickness as a functional marker of cell membrane. It's not very known if it plays any role as mortality marker in several clinical conditions like Intensive Care Unite (ICU) patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of IM measurement as a prognostic tool in an ICU population in a prospective study.Read More »

Microalbuminuria in systolic and Diastolic chronic heart failure patients

Ref : VAL068

Tejeda OA  Ramirez EC  Gilsoul TH  Martínez CL  Jiménez MA  Rene Narváez David  García JD

Cardiology Journal 2008, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 143-149

Microalbuminuria is considered a major risk factor predisposing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Microalbuminuria levels in patients with or without diabetes have been associated with a higher risk of chronic heart failure (HF). However, there are limited data regarding prevalence of microalbuminuria in chronic heart failure and its prognostic value. The aim of this study was to assess the occurence of microalbuminuria in chronic heart failure patients as well as its association with clinical, echocardiographic, and body composition markers.Read More »

Preliminary results for use of Illness Marker in heart failure patients

Ref : VAL069

Réka Kegyes Bozó  Lelovics Z

Published at the ESPEN congress 2009

Heart failure is characterized by fluid disturbances. Changes in volume in the clinical practice are evaluated with fluid balance and weight measurements, but these do not reflect compartmental changes. Integrity of the cells can be characterized by the ratio of measured impedance values at 200 kHz and 5 kHz Illness Marker (IM). Tracking IM over time can be used as fluid distribution indicator. Multifrequency bioimpedance analysis may provide insight into the compartmental changes. Multifrequency bioimpedance can be used in altered fluid distribution. Read More »

Accelerometers for Measuring Physical Activity Behavior in Indian Children

Ref : VAL070

Krishnaveni GV  Mills IC  Veena SR  Wootton SA  Wills AK  Coakley PJ  Fisher DJ  Shobna S  Karat SC  Fall CHD

Indian Pediatrics 2009 April 1.

To examine the validity of accelerometers for characterizing habitual physical activity patterns in Indian children. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore.Read More »

Assessing fluid shifts non-invasively in children - validation and reproducibility of a bioelectrical impedance assay (Bodystat)

Ref : VAL072

Taylor JE  White DK  Ross Russell RI

Presented at the 20th ESPNIC Annual Medical & Nursing Congress in Verona, Italy

The measurement of bioelectrical impedance is simple and non-invasive and offers a potential solution to the difficulties in measuring fluid shifts in critically ill patients. It may also be useful in predicting mortality in sick adults1. Its use in children has been limited. We have measured its reproducibility in children in the short and medium term. 1Nescolarde et al; Physiol Measur:2004 p1271Read More »

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Impairs Endothelial Function

Ref : VAL073

Taylor JSW  Williams SRP  Rhys R  James P  Frenneaux MP

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006; 26: 307-312.

To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body mass index (BMI), body fat distribution, endothelial function, and markers of cardiovascular risk.Read More »

Assessment of Nutritional Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

Ref : VAL074

Yazdanpanah L  Shidfar F  Moosavi JA  Heidarnazhad H  Haghani H

Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 38, No.3, 2009, pp.39-45

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered a major public health problem in the world. Weight loss, muscle and fat mass depletion are common nutritional problems in COPD patients and are determinant factors in pulmonary function, health status, disability and mortality. In the present study, we assessed nutritional status in COPD patients.Read More »

Association between Markers of Inflammation, Fibrosis and Hypervolemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

Ref : VAL076

Gangji AS  Brimble S  Margetts PJ

Blood Purif 2009;28:354-358

Volume expansion in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy. The link between inflammation and hypervolemia has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to determine if an association exists between hypervolemia and markers of inflammation in PD patients.Read More »

Extracellular Fluid Volume and Mortality in Hemodialysis.

Ref : VAL077

Demírci C  Ozkahya M  Demírci MS  Hür E  Adam SM  Ok E  Başçi A  Töz H

BANTAO Journal 2009; Volume 7: Supplement 1, OP-06

We investigated whether the amount of extracellular water (ECW) assessed by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) predicts mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients.Read More »

Prognostic value of cardiac troponin T elevation is independent of renal function and clinical findings in heart failure patients.

Ref : VAL078

Tejeda OA  González LRS  Martínez CL  Trejo AV  Santillán RNS  Davies CK  Ramírez CE  Hernández PM  García JD

Cardiology Journal 2010, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 1 - 7

The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and prognostic value of elevated cardiac troponin (cTnT) and its association with clinical characteristics according to renal function status in patients with stable heart failure.Read More »

Heritability of Venous Function in Humans

Ref : VAL079

Brinsuk M  Tank J  Luft FC  Busjahn A  Jordan J

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:207-211

Venous function contributes to the pathogenesis of thrombophlebitis, venous thrombosis, and possibly to arterial hypertension. Venous disease is presumably heritable; however, the genetic variance of venous function is unknown.Read More »

Physical Fitness in Morbidly Obese Patients: Effect of Gastric Bypass Surgery and Exercise Training

Ref : VAL080

Stegen S  Derave W  Calders P  Van Laethem C  Pattyn P

OBES SURG, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

There is a growing consensus that bariatric surgery is currently the most efficacious and long-term treatment for clinically severe obesity. However, it remains to be determined whether poor physical fitness, an important characteristic of these patients, improves as well. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effect of gastric bypass surgery on physical fitness and to determine if an exercise program in the first 4 months is beneficial.Read More »

An isoenergetic high-protein, moderate-fat diet does not compromise strength and fatigue during resistance exercise in women

Ref : VAL082

Dipla K  Makri M  Zafeiridis A  Soulas D  Tsalouhidou S  Mougios V  Kellis S

British Journal of Nutrition (2008), 100, 283-286

Resistance exercise is recommended to individuals following high-protein diets in order to augment changes in body composition. However, alterations in macronutrient composition may compromise physical performance. The present study investigated the effects of an isoenergetic high-protein diet on upper and lower limb strength and fatigue during high-intensity resistance exercise. Read More »

Reliability of bioimpedance methods in dialysis patients

Ref : VAL084

Wilkieson TJ  Ranganath N  Robinson KR  Prieur AJ  Rabbat CG  Gangji AS  Ingram AJ  Goldsmith CH  Clase CM

Presented at the ASN-American Society Nephrology Oct 2009

Bioimpedance measurement is a potential non-invasive, inexpensive and rapid method for bedside assessment of volume status.Read More »

Volume overload, assessed by the resistance-reactance graph method of interpreting bioimpedance, is prevalent in incident haemodialysis patients participating in the Longitudinal Pilot Study of Haemodialysis Patients

Ref : VAL085

Gangji AS  Wilkieson TJ  Ingram AJ  Crowther MA  Rabbat CG  Douketis JD  Cinà CS  Goldsmith CH  Clase CM

Presented at the ASN-American Society Nephrology Oct 2009

Clinical assessment of volume status is difficult. Bioimpedance measurement is a potential non-invasive, inexpensive and rapid method for bedside assessment of volume status.Read More »

Calf Bioimpedance Ratio Improves Dry Weight Assessment and Blood Pressure Control in Hemodialysis Patients

Ref : VAL086

Zhou YL  Liu J  Sun F  Ma LJ  Han B  Shen Y  Cui TG

Am J Nephrol 2010;32:109-116

Chronic fluid overload due to overestimation of dry weight (DW) is the major factor in the development of hypertension in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether bioimpedance ratio in the calf (Calf-BR = impedance at 200 kHz/impedance at 5 kHz) could be a useful hydration marker for estimation of DW and facilitate better control of blood pressure (BP) in HD patients. Read More »

Early growth patterns and cardiometabolic function at the age of 5 in a multiethnic birth cohort: the ABCD study.

Ref : VAL087

de Beer M  van Eijsden M  Vrijkotte TGM  Gemke RJBJ

BMC Pediatrics 2009, 9:23

The relation between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life has been demonstrated in many studies. However, debate exists around the potential independent role of postnatal growth acceleration. Furthermore, it is unknown whether a potential effect of growth acceleration on cardiovascular and metabolic function is confined to certain timeframes. Read More »

Low albumin concentrations and high impedance ratio are risk factors for worsening renal function during hospitalization in decompensated heart failure patients.

Ref : VAL088

Martínez CL  Tejeda OA  Trejo AV  Ramírez CE  Sánchez A  Pineda JÁ  Navarro A  Carrasco O  Sánchez R

Presented as Abstract at ESPEN Congress, Nice, France. September 2010

Patients hospitalized for decompensated heart failure frequently experience worsening of renal function that leads to diuretic resistance and volume overload. Read More »

Insulin-requiring diabetes in Ethiopia: associations with poverty, early undernutrition and anthropometric disproportion

Ref : VAL089

Fekadu S  Yigzaw M  Alemu S  Dessie A  Fieldhouse H  Girma T  Trimble ER  Phillips DIW  Parry EHO

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010), 1-7

Most insulin-requiring diabetes patients in Ethiopia have an atypical form of the disease, which resembles previous descriptions of malnutrition-related diabetes. As so little is known about its aetiology, we have carried out a case-control study to evaluate its social and nutritional determinants.Read More »

The relationship between BMI and percent body fat, measured by bioelectrical impedance, in a large adult sample is curvilinear and influenced by age and sex

Ref : VAL090

S Meeuwsen  Horgan GW  Elia M

Clinical Nutrition 29 (2010) 560-566

The study aimed to establish the effects of age, gender and age - gender interactions on BMI - % fat relationships over a wide range of BMI and age. It also aimed to examine controversies regarding linear or curvilinear BMI - % fat relationships.Read More »

An evaluation of phase angle, impedance ratio, and bioimpedance vector for assessing body composition and clinical outcomes in gastric bypass patients

Ref : VAL092

Earthman CP   Beckman TR  Sibley D  Thomas W  Beckman LM  Ikramuddin S  Kellogg TA  Weijs PJM  Kunkel SA

Published at the 9th International Symposium on In Vivo Body Composition Studies, Hangzhou, China

To evaluate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)-derived parameters for body composition and clinical outcomes assessment in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients.Read More »

Comparison of isotope dilution with Bioelectrical Impedance analysis among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in Tanzania

Ref : VAL093

Kupka R  Manji KP  Wroe E  Aboud S  Bosch RJ  Fawzi WW  Kurpad AV  Duggan C

International Journal of Body Composition Research 2011 Vol. 9 No. 1: 1-10.

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a simple tool to assess total body water (TBW), from which body composition can be estimated using statistical equations. However, standard BIA equations have not been sufficiently validated during pregnancy, in HIV infection, or in sub-Saharan Africa. We therefore compared TBW estimates from multifrequency BIA with those from the reference method deuterium isotope dilution (Deut) in a cohort of 30 HIV-uninfected and 30 HIV-infected pregnant women from Tanzania.Read More »

Bioimpedance measurement for volume in patients with chronic kidney disease participating in the CANPREDDICT study: design of a prospective study and results of a single centre pilot

Ref : VAL094

Wilkieson TJ  Khandelwal M  Kotsamanes CZ  Gangji AS  Rabbat CG  Levin A  Madore F  Tobe SW  Moist L  Tonelli M  Soroka SD  Hemmelgarn BR  Lok C  Clase CM

Presented at the Canadian Society of Nephrology Conference in Montreal.

Bioimpedance: • Reflects body composition • Is easy, inexpensive and non-invasive to perform • Some measures of bioimpedance have been shown to predict death1 Volume status • Is difficult to assess clinically • Hypervolaemia may predispose patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to congestive heart failure (CHF) in the short term and in the longer term cause arterial changes and cardiac remodelling that lead to myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and sudden death • Can be manipulated • Is a potential therapeutic target Data on volume status in patients with CKD not on dialysis are sparse Read More »

A New BIA Equation Estimating the Body Composition of Young Children

Ref : VAL095

Clasey JL  Bradley KD  Bradley JW  Long DE  Griffith JR

Obesity (2011) doi:10.1038/oby.2011.158

Bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) provides a valid and reliable measure of body composition in field, clinical and research settings if standard protocol procedures are followed, and population-specific equations are available and utilized. The objective of this study was to create and cross-validate a new BIA body composition equation with representative healthy weight (HW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB) young children.Read More »

Comparison of various methods of body fat analysis in overweight and obese women

Ref : VAL097

Verovská R  Lacnák Z  Haluzíková D  Fábin P  Hájek P  Horák L  Haluzík M  Svacina S  Matoulek M

Vnitr Lek. 2009 May;55(5):455-61.

Body composition assessment and determination of the amount and distribution of body fat, respectively, form an essential part of the basic clinical assessment of an obese patient. However, there are no recommended methods to determine the amount of fat in obese population. The aim of our study was to compare the methods most frequently used to determine the amount of body fat in overweight and obese women in clinical practice (multi-frequency bio-electrical impedance analysis--BIA using the Bodystat, Omron and Tanita machines and the skinfold test using a calliper) with a reference method (DEXA). The study further aimed to compile prediction formulae enabling clinicians to calculate the percentage of body fat when using the available body fat measurement techniques.Read More »

Bioimpedance Analysis in a weight -loss programme during cardiac rehabilitation

Ref : VAL099

Réka Kegyes Bozó  Jobst D

Presentation September 2011 at the ESPEN Congress in Sweden

Bioimpedance is a quick, non-invasive method to assess body composition, to track changes in fat proportion during a weight-loss programme and to follow-up changes in body water proportion and shift between extra- and intracellular spaces. These parameters are of interest in a cardiac rehabilitation unit.Read More »

Possible use of multifrequency Bioimpedance analysis in cardiac rehabilitation

Ref : VAL100

Réka Kegyes Bozó  Jobst D

Presentation September 2011 at the ESPEN Congress in Sweden.

Performance is provided in Watts by cycle ergometers used in Hungary. The calculation of MET can be done precisely by using fat free mass, because the use of body weight underestimates the real performance. Our aim was to construct an equation to calculate body fat content based on waist circumference.Read More »

The Extracellular Water Corrected for Height Predicts Technique Survival in Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

Ref : VAL101

Demírci MS  Demírci C  Turan MN  Tatar E  Dheir H  Yilmaz M  Asci G  Töz H  Ok E  Ozkahya M

Turk Neph Dial Transp12013; 22 (2): 188-195

Most patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) consume a normal Western diet that contains a large amount of salt. This causes increase in extracellular volume ("fluid overload") that has to be removed mostly with the dialysis fluid, as residual renal function (if present) cannot cope with it. In the present study, we prospectively investigated whether an increased extracellular volume (corrected for height) predicted technique survival in PD patients.Read More »

Cachexia assessed by bioimpedance vector analysis as a prognosis indicator in chronic stable heart failure patients

Ref : VAL103

Castillo-Martínez L  Colín-Ramírez E  Orea-Tejeda A  González Islas DG   Rodríguez García WD  Santillán Díaz C  Gutiérrez Rodríguez AE  Vázquez Durán M  Keirans Davies C

Nutrition xxx (2012) 1-6

This study explored whether the cachectic state assessed by bioimpedance vector analysis provides additional prognostic information about mortality from all causes.Read More »

Low albumin levels and high impedance ratio as risk factors for worsening kidney function during hospitalization of decompensated heart failure patients

Ref : VAL104

Valdespino-Trejo A  Orea-Tejeda A  Castillo-Martínez L  Keirans Davies C  Montanez-Orozco A  Ortíz-Suárez G  Delgado-Pérez DA  Marquez-Zepeda B

Exp Clin Cardiol Vol 18 No 2 201

Patients hospitalized for decompensated heart failure (DHF) frequently experience worsening of renal function (WRF), leading to volume overload and resistance to diuretics.Read More »

TNF-α is associated with loss of lean body mass only in already cachectic COPD patients

Ref : VAL105

Eagan TML  Gabazza EC  D’Alessandro-Gabazza C  Gil-Bernabe P  Aoki S  Hardie JA  Bakke PS  Wagner PD

Respiratory Research 2012, 13:48

Systemic inflammation may contribute to cachexia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this longitudinal study we assessed the association between circulating C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels and subsequent loss of fat free mass and fat mass in more than 400 COPD patients over three years. Read More »

An evaluation of a bioelectrical impedance analyser for the estimation of body fat content

Ref : VAL106

Maughan RJ

BrJ Sp Med 1993; 27(1)

Measurement of body composition is an important part of any assessment of health or fitness. Hydrostatic weighing is generally accepted as the most reliable method for the measurement of body fat content, but is inconvenient. Electrical impedance analysers have recently been proposed as an alternative to the measurement of skinfold thickness. Both these latter methods are convenient, but give values based on estimates obtained from population studies.Read More »

Correlative study of EEG and body hydration across the menstrual cycle

Ref : VAL107

Sharma S  Manjhi J  Rai DV

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) , Vol. 1 Issue 6, August - 2012 ISSN: 2278 - 0181

Evidence exists for physical and psychological changes across the 28 days of menstrual cycle. Variation in the hormonal level have physical symptoms as oedema, breast tenderness, muscle pain, weight increase, vomiting and most notably water retention or body hydration in women. Significant changes in behavioral across the menstrual cycle such as mood swings, anxiety, depression, confusion, emotional liability, irritability, loss of concentration, lethargy, and aggression/hostility, have been associated with the menstrual cycle.Read More »

A single-blinded randomised clinical trial of permissive underfeeding in patients requiring parenteral nutrition

Ref : VAL108

Owais AE  Kabira SI  Mcnaught C  Gatt M  MacFie J

Clinical Nutrition 33 (2014) 997-1001

The importance of adequate nutritional support is well established, but characterising what ‘adequate nutrition’ represents remains contentious. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the concept of ‘permissive underfeeding’ where patients are intentionally prescribed less nutrition than their calculated requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of permissive underfeeding on septic and nutrition related morbidity in patients requiring short term parenteral nutrition (PN). Read More »

Bioelectrical impedance phase angle in breast carcinoma

Ref : VAL109

Tyagi R  Mishra S  Kumar M  Gaur N  Misra R  Prasad A

International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences • Vol. 3 • Issue 1 • Jan-Mar 201

Worldwide breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life threatening cancer and the leading cause of death in women. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) affords an emerging opportunity to assess prognosis because of its ability to non invasively assess cell and plasma membrane structure and function by means of phase angle.Read More »

Bioelectrical impedance phase angle relates to function, disease severity and prognosis in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Ref : VAL110

Maddocks M  Kon SSC  Jones SE  Canavan JL  Nolan CM  Higginson IJ  Gao W  Polkey MI  Man WD-C

Clinical Nutrition xxx (2015) 1-6

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) provides a simple method to assess changes in body composition. Raw BIA variables such as phase angle provide direct information on cellular mass and integrity, without the assumptions inherent in estimating body compartments, e.g. fat-free mass (FFM). Phase angle is a strong functional and prognostic marker in many disease states, but data in COPD are lacking. Our aims were to describe the measurement of phase angle by assessing its relationship with established markers of function, disease severity and prognosis. Read More »



Bodystat Product Validation


Copd/Ards/Lung Water



Drug Dosing

Eating Disorders


Fluid Management in Critical Care

General Body Composition

Heart Disease


Nutritional Status

Obesity Epidemic

Paediatrics & Neonates

Prediction Marker/Body Cell Mass/Phase Angle


Pulmonary Oedema


Segmental Analysis

Wasting Disease

Weight Loss/Wellness